1. Engaging in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to—
  2. fear for the person’s safety or the safety of others; or
  3. suffer substantial emotional distress.
  4. For the purposes of this definition—
  5. Course of conduct means two or more acts, including, but not limited to, acts which the stalker directly, indirectly, or through third parties, by any action, method, device, or means follows, monitors, observes, surveils, threatens, or communicates to or about, a person, or interferes with a person’s property.
  6. Reasonable person means a reasonable person under similar circumstances and with similar identities to the victim.
  7. Substantial emotional distress means significant mental suffering or anguish that may, but does not necessarily, require medical or other professional treatment or counseling.


Such behaviors and activities may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Non-consensual communication including face-to-face communication, telephone calls, voice messages, text messages, email messages, instant messages, written letters, gifts or any other communications that are undesired and/or place another person in fear
  • Use of online, electronic, or digital technologies including:
    • Posting of pictures or information in chat rooms or websites
    • Sending unwanted/unsolicited email or talk requests
    • Posting private or public messages on internet sites, social networking sites, and/or school bulletin boards
    • Installing spy-ware on an individual’s computer
    • Using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to monitor an individual
  • Pursuing, waiting, or showing up uninvited at a workplace, place of residence, classroom, or other locations frequented by an individual
  • Surveillance and other types of observation, whether by physical proximity or electronic means
  • Trespassing
  • Vandalism
  • Non-consensual touching
  • Direct physical and/or verbal threats against an individual or his or her loved ones
  • Gathering information about an individual from family, friends, co-workers, and/or classmates
  • Manipulative and controlling behaviors, such as threats to harm oneself or threats to harm someone close to the individual
  • Defamation (lying to others about the individual, etc.)